Comparaţie. Elementul comun – avionul Tupolev TU-154 (Pdd)


Un expert polonez, despre dezastrul de la Smolensk:

“Acceleraţia la momentul contactului fuselajului cu solul sau copacii, a fost în medie de la 0,4 g până la 4g (g – acceleraţia gravitaţională), ceea ce face foarte puţin probabilă moartea tuturor pasagerilor în timpul decelerării şi ca urmare a acesteia. A fost deasemenea imposibil pentru corpul aeronavei să efectueze o jumătate de rotaţie după pierderea imaginabilă de fragmente din aripă de la câţiva metri deasupra solului”.

“Fuzelajul, tratat în calcule ca un tub fabricat în principal din duraluminiu armat cu ranforsări (“coaste”), in timp ce aluneca pe teren, ar fi trebuit să rămână întreg sau să se dezintegreze în nu mai mult de trei părţi. Dezintegrarea sa în zeci de mii de bucăţi este în contradicţie cu durabilitatea materialului, definită de mecanică. Acest lucru indică faptul că dezintegrarea fuzelajului s-a întâmplat cu siguranţă din alte motive, destul de evidente”.

Accident de aterizare pe aeroportul Domodedovo din Moscova (4 decembrie 2010):


A Tupolev 154M passenger jet, registration RA-85744, was damaged beyond repair in a landing accident at Moskva-Domodedovo Airport (DME), Russia. According to the Ministry of Emergency Situations (MChS) of Russia there were 160 passengers and nine crew members on board. MChS also reports that two persons were killed and 78 were injured.

The airplane departed Moskva-Vnukovo Airport (VKO) at 14:10 on a domestic flight to Makhachkala Airport (MCX). About 14:22, at a distance of about 80 km from Moskva-Domodedovo Airport and at an altitude of 9100m the crew reported the successive engine failure of all three engines and the loss of generators and navigational equipment.

The crew decided to divert to Moskva-Domodedovo Airport (DME) for an emergency landing. Air traffic control radioed position reports but visual contact with the ground could not be obtained until breaking through the overcast at about 500 feet.The TU-154 landed to the right of the runway and continued until it struck a small earthen mound, causing it to split into three parts.

Weather about the time of the emergency landing (11:49 UTC):
UUDD 041130Z 19004MPS 9999 OVC005 M01/M02 Q1010 32550195 82550195 TEMPO FZRA=
[11:30 UTC: Wind 190 degrees at 4 m/s (8 kts); 500 ft. (150 m) overcast; Temperature -1°C; dew point -2°C; 1010 hPa; Freezing Rain]
UUDD 041200Z 20003MPS 160V230 9999 OVC004 M01/M02 Q1010 64550195 TEMPO FZRA=
[12:00 UTC: Wind 200 degrees (variable from 160 to 230) at 3 m/s (6 kts); 400 ft. (120 m) overcast; Temperature -1°C; dew point -2°C; 1010 hPa; Freezing Rain]

This was the same aircraft (RA-85744) that was used to transport the Belgium national football team from Brussels to Voronezh on November 16, 2010 for their match against Russia.

» Interfax
» Ministry of Emergency Situations (MChS) of Russia
» MAK Interstate Aviation Committee (IAC)

“Accidentul” de aterizare de la Smolensk din 10 aprilie 2010:


A Tupolev 154M passenger jet, operated the Polish Air Force, was destroyed when it crashed on approach to Smolensk Air Base in poor visibility. All on board were killed in the accident, including Polish President Lech Kaczynski.

The airplane departed Warszawa-Okecie Airport (WAW), Poland at 07:27 local time, carrying Polish President Lech Kaczynski, his wife, several Members of Parliament, President of the National Bank of Poland Slawomir Skrzypek, Chief of General Staff Franciszek Gagor, the Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs Andrzej Kremer and a number of passengers and crew members.

During the flight the crew was in contact with air traffic controllers at Minsk, Moscow and Smolensk. The crew also was in contact with the crew of a Polish Air Force Yakovlev 40 passenger plane that had landed at Smolensk Air Base 90 minutes ahead of the Presidential flight.

At about 10:14 the flight descended through an altitude of 7500 m. Minsk Control radioed that the visibility at Smolensk Air Base was 400 m due to fog. The same conditions were transmitted to the crew when they contacted the controller at Smolensk.

About 10:25 the pilot of the Yak-40 on the ground at Smolensk radioed that horizontal visiblity was 400 m and vertical visibility about 50 m. Shortly afterwards they reported that an Ilyushin 76 transport plane had diverted to an alternate airfield after two attempts to land.

The crew continued preparations for an approach to runway 26 at the Smolensk Air Base. The cockpit door was open and during the approach there were two passengers present on the flight deck.

Meanwhile, visibility worsened to 200 m. This information was transmitted to the crew at 10:37. The crew requested permission to carry out a ‘trial’ approach to decision height (100 m) and asked the controller to expect a go around.

About 18 seconds before impact the terrain awareness and warning system (TAWS) sounded: “Pull up”, followed by an aural warning: “TERRAIN AHEAD”. About 5 seconds before impact the autopilot and autothrottle were disconnected in order to execute a go around.

The airplane contacted upsloping terrain at a distance of about 1100 meters from the runway and 40 m to the left of extended centreline. The aircraft height at that point was 15 m below the level of the runway threshold. The left wing struck a large tree causing the airplane to roll inverted. The Tu-154 crashed and broke up.

» Interfax
» List of Presidents involved in aircraft accidents
» MAK Interstate Aviation Committee (IAC)

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